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  • boot full 용량문제
    os/Ubuntu 2018. 8. 15. 08:30

    /boot 용량문제

    ### /boot 용량확인
    df -h
    Filesystem                   Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    ....
    /dev/sda1                    228M  223M     0 100% /boot
    ....
    
    ### /boot 용량확인
    du -sh /boot
    223M    /boot
    
    ### /boot 관련 dpkg 확인
    # dpkg -l "linux*"
    dpkg -l | grep "linux.*imag.*"
    ... 설치된 linux-headers, linux-image 목록이 나온다.
    # rc : r 패키지 제거됨, c 설정파일은 존재함.
    
    # 상태가 rc 인 패키지 설정제거
    dpkg --list |grep "^rc" | cut -d " " -f 3 | xargs sudo dpkg --purge
    
    ### 현재 사용중인 이미지를 확인 한다. 필요하다면 grub를 이용해서 설치된 이미지로 부팅한다.
    uname -r
    4.4.0-57-generic
    
    ### 일단 청소
    apt autoclean && apt autoremove
    
    ### 이건 해보지 않음.. ^^;;;
    # byobu 설치
    apt install byobu.
    # 이전 커널 제거
    purge-old-kernels
    
    ### 수동 패키지 제거
    apt-get purge linux-image-4.4.0-21-generic && update-grub.
    # 리부팅 후 force 설치
    apt-get -f install
    apt update && apt full-upgrade.
    # 최신 커널로 재부팅후, 이전 커널 제거
    
    ### dpkg 방법
    # 터미널에서 최신커널이전 삭제
    echo $(dpkg --list | grep linux-image | awk '{ print $2 }' | sort -V | sed -n '/'`uname -r`'/q;p') $(dpkg --list | grep linux-headers | awk '{ print $2 }' | sort -V | sed -n '/'"$(uname -r | sed "s/\([0-9.-]*\)-\([^0-9]\+\)/\1/")"'/q;p') | xargs sudo apt-get -y purge
    # 리부팅 후 패키지 설치
    apt-get -f install
    apt update && apt full-upgrade
    apt autoclean && apt autoremove
    purge_old_kernels
    

    dpkg

    dpkg --help
    사용법: dpkg [<옵션> ...] <명령>
    
    Commands:
        -i|--install       <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
        --unpack           <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
        -A|--record-avail  <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
        --configure        <package> ... | -a|--pending
        --triggers-only    <package> ... | -a|--pending
        -r|--remove        <package> ... | -a|--pending
        -P|--purge         <package> ... | -a|--pending
        -V|--verify <package> ...        Verify the integrity of package(s).
        --get-selections [<pattern> ...] Get list of selections to stdout.
        --set-selections                 Set package selections from stdin.
        --clear-selections               Deselect every non-essential package.
        --update-avail [<Packages-file>] Replace available packages info.
        --merge-avail [<Packages-file>]  Merge with info from file.
        --clear-avail                    Erase existing available info.
        --forget-old-unavail             Forget uninstalled unavailable pkgs.
        -s|--status <package> ...        Display package status details.
        -p|--print-avail <package> ...   Display available version details.
        -L|--listfiles <package> ...     List files 'owned' by package(s).
        -l|--list [<pattern> ...]        List packages concisely.
        -S|--search <pattern> ...        Find package(s) owning file(s).
        -C|--audit [<package> ...]       Check for broken package(s).
        --yet-to-unpack                  Print packages selected for installation.
        --predep-package                 Print pre-dependencies to unpack.
        --add-architecture <arch>        Add <arch> to the list of architectures.
        --remove-architecture <arch>     Remove <arch> from the list of architectures.
        --print-architecture             Print dpkg architecture.
        --print-foreign-architectures    Print allowed foreign architectures.
        --assert-<feature>               Assert support for the specified feature.
        --compare-versions <a> <op> <b>  Compare version numbers - see below.
        --force-help                     Show help on forcing.
        -Dh|--debug=help                 Show help on debugging.
    
        -?, --help                       Show this help message.
            --version                    Show the version.
    
    Assertable features: support-predepends, working-epoch, long-filenames,
        multi-conrep, multi-arch, versioned-provides.
    
    Use dpkg with -b, --build, -c, --contents, -e, --control, -I, --info,
        -f, --field, -x, --extract, -X, --vextract, --ctrl-tarfile, --fsys-tarfile
    on archives (type dpkg-deb --help).
    
    Options:
        --admindir=<directory>     Use <directory> instead of /var/lib/dpkg.
        --root=<directory>         Install on a different root directory.
        --instdir=<directory>      Change installation dir without changing admin dir.
        --path-exclude=<pattern>   Do not install paths which match a shell pattern.
        --path-include=<pattern>   Re-include a pattern after a previous exclusion.
        -O|--selected-only         Skip packages not selected for install/upgrade.
        -E|--skip-same-version     Skip packages whose same version is installed.
        -G|--refuse-downgrade      Skip packages with earlier version than installed.
        -B|--auto-deconfigure      Install even if it would break some other package.
        --[no-]triggers            Skip or force consequential trigger processing.
        --verify-format=<format>   Verify output format (supported: 'rpm').
        --no-debsig                Do not try to verify package signatures.
        --no-act|--dry-run|--simulate
                                    Just say what we would do - don't do it.
        -D|--debug=<octal>         Enable debugging (see -Dhelp or --debug=help).
        --status-fd <n>            Send status change updates to file descriptor <n>.
        --status-logger=<command>  Send status change updates to <command>'s stdin.
        --log=<filename>           Log status changes and actions to <filename>.
        --ignore-depends=<package>,...
                                    Ignore dependencies involving <package>.
        --force-...                Override problems (see --force-help).
        --no-force-...|--refuse-...
                                    Stop when problems encountered.
        --abort-after <n>          Abort after encountering <n> errors.
    
    --compare-versions에서 사용하는 비교 연산자:
        lt le eq ne ge gt       (버전이 없는 경우 항상 이전 버전으로 취급)
        lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl (버전이 없는 경우 항상 이후 버전으로 취급)
        < << <= = >= >> >       (control 파일의 형식과의 호환성을 위해서만 사용).
    
    Use 'apt' or 'aptitude' for user-friendly package management.
    

    State Info

    First letter -> desired package state ("selection state"):
    u ... unknown
    i ... install
    r ... remove/deinstall
    p ... purge (remove including config files)
    h ... hold
    
    Second letter -> current package state:
    n ... not-installed
    i ... installed
    c ... config-files (only the config files are installed)
    u ... unpacked
    f ... half-configured (configuration failed for some reason)
    h ... half-installed (installation failed for some reason)
    w ... triggers-awaited (package is waiting for a trigger from another package)
    t ... triggers-pending (package has been triggered)
    
    Third letter -> error state (you normally shouldn't see a thrid letter):
    r ... reinst-required (package broken, reinstallation required)
    


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